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Traction Get a Grip on Your Business. It's All Possible How you can lead an epic life and unleash the h The tensions between UFC and state structures thus appear above all as a consequence of the changes affecting relations between NGOs and those structures since the return of the state to the forefront of the development scene in the early s:. They may also reveal divergences between different societal projects and struggles to put specific problems on the agenda or impose ways of constructing them.
Two texts usefully illustrate this dimension. The recent organizations of young educated francophone Muslims are now contesting the historical role of the Catholic Church in the state and the imbalances between religions regarding public holidays, representation in political dialogue forums and their presence on television. These challenges were brought to the public arena at a conference initiated by a Muslim association in Muslim associations are calling for the creation of an observatory on secularity.
The state refused, but in organized a national Forum on this question, which was to provoke heated debates on the meaning of secularity and religious neutrality in Burkina Faso, falling between a positive vision of religions and a fear of their too strong presence in state affairs, as well as compromises on questions of representation and presence in the media.
It refers to religious neutrality in order to raise the problem of interfaith relations in their treatment by the state and in the public sphere, and to attempt to renegotiate them. Faced with the Islamic threat, which is developing worldwide as well as in the sub-region, such a debate on secularity is also an opportunity for the various protagonists, the state in the first place: beyond the demand for equal treatment by Muslim associations, the issue for the state is also to counter the risks of the rise of Jihadism and for Catholics and Protestants to put forward their fear of a challenge to their religious freedom.
This example shows how a claim by one group of actors was considered in a specific political context, and how the way of expressing the problem was reformulated according to local and global issues. Following the double approach of politics and policies to examine a core social-contract issue, the author pays particular attention to how the urgent need for land reform has once again been put on the agenda by the Mali government.
Organizations in Action - Competition between Contexts (Paperback)
The author follows this new attempt at reform step by step, starting with its introduction on the agenda and examining the contradictions inherent to its scope, as well as the action strategies proposed. Subsequently, she examines the stakes of the political recuperation and instrumentalization of land-related rents, the arbitration between competing entities in the administrative sector and the social groups that use them. In the beginning, the political discourse vigorously denounced fraudulent practice against ordinary citizens and enacted emergency measures.
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But it quickly backed down from this political denunciation to fall back — once more — on an ill-defined miracle solution - land registry and cadastre - whose links with the identified political problem are not evident. The apparent desire for reform is very quickly confronted with corporatism and institutional rivalry between ministries. Land resources are a huge rent issue and give rise to constant tensions between the various bureaucratic instances, each one jealous of its information, little inclined to dialogue and quick to declare others incompetent to justify their own procedural shortcuts.
Three ministers succeeded one another, each with very different personal style. The estimated budget to implement the cadastre was way above the means available to the state, which thus reduced its commitments, and international donors did not follow. Crucial, but blocked by an entanglement of institutions, interests and administrative routines, the will to treat the land question comes up against the difficulty of political action coupled with a dependence on external means. Since the middle of the s, for reasons of economy of scale, these organizations have progressively taken charge of order placement, thus entering into competition with existing national circuits.
The case of anti-malaria medication in these two countries illustrates the fact that public action frameworks and processes result from multi-stakeholder negotiation processes the state, funding bodies, local institutions and operators , and that these negotiations also tend to continue during implementation, largely due to the reaction of local populations and institutions. By conditioning their financial aid to the purchase of medication pre-qualified by WHO, international actors exclude the Ghanaian companies from responding to tenders, and this to the advantage of American companies.
Such practice is contested by other development actors, which, on the contrary, want to support the quality upgrading of national firms. Owing to the past history in this sector, the national distribution networks remain very specific to each of these countries, but their current organization owes as much, if not more, to the way transnational actors adapt their strategies to a given context, rather than to real national policy formulation.
International funds flowed in. Nevertheless, the elite of the leading party never ceased drawing up measures to neutralize any potential change.
Defined at a late date, the plan strictly follows the priorities defined by the funding bodies but lacks content, despite pressure from the latter. The power stakes were such that the regime preferred to lose part of its international financial support. The influence of donors was mainly exercised at a bureaucratic level, via interactions between the public service executives of the Burundi and the international authorities, as well as at the level of political discourse.
Far from the Manichean mindset opposing national and international actors, they both bring to light how the diverse actors are inextricably linked, albeit in very different configurations, where the power and capacity of the national actors vary considerably. Dynamics of African Bureaucracies , Coll. Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies, vol. LECA J.
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Ou peut-on sortir du triangle des Bermudes? The revenge of contexts , London, Berghahn Press. Sommaire - Document suivant. Plan A dynamic field of research.
organizations in action competition between contexts Manual
Politics, societal projects and the assessment of public problems. Internationalized co-production in public action: imposed models and resistance in aid relationships. A dynamic field of research 1 French-speaking scholars make a distinction between public policy historically too often related t The a Notes 1 French-speaking scholars make a distinction between public policy historically too often related to state policy and public action which involves different state and non-state actors.
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